The village-legend of Nangeli is about an Ezhava woman who lived in the early 19th century at Cherthala in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore in India and supposedly, cut off her breasts in an effort to protest against a caste-based " breast tax ". Many historians have registered this incident and India's Central Board of Secondary Education has treated this incident in a syllabus intended for class IX students in social sciences, in a section entitled Caste, Conflict and Dress Change. This was later removed on account of an order by the Madras High Court judging it "objectionable content" as it was perceived as a sign of respect towards the upper castes. Multiple historians have documented that uncovering one's breasts was revered as a symbolic token of homage from the lower castes towards the upper castes in the kingdom of Travancore wherein the relatively fluid caste hierarchies prevalent in South India was reified by the rulers and a state-law prevented any covering of breasts since it demarcated the caste hierarchy in a prominent manner. This had often been the focal point of multiple rebellions by lower castes. A breast tax mulakkaram was also allegedly imposed by the-then Brahmin king on lower caste Hindu women, which was to be paid if they wished to cover their breasts in public; the tax was supposedly assessed in proportion to the size of their breasts. Pillai and other scholars reject a rigid interpretation of the etymological connection and instead assert it to be a generic woman-specific tax that was charged from all lower caste communities. According to the popular narrative, in the early years of the 19th century, the pravathiyar village officer of Travancore came to Nangeli's home to survey her breasts and collect the breast tax.
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Ledbetter was accused of sitting on the woman and slicing off her nipples with a pair of scissors during an argument last year. He apologized in court. AP - A judge has sentenced a South Dakota man to 45 years in prison for using scissors to mutilate his ex-girlfriend's breasts. Forty-five-year-old Tony Ledbetter of Sioux Falls earlier pleaded guilty to three counts of aggravated assault. As part of a plea deal, prosecutors agreed to ask for no more than 30 years. The victim told the court how her injuries affected her physically and emotionally. She addressed Ledbetter directly, saying, "Do you feel like a man? Copyright The Associated Press.
By Rod Ardehali For Mailonline. Tony Ledbetter, of Sioux Falls, pleaded guilty to three counts of aggravated assault after he sliced off his former partners nipples in an appalling frenzy. He was jailed for 45 years.
Forty-five-year-old Tony Ledbetter of Sioux Falls earlier pleaded guilty to three counts of aggravated assault. As part of a plea deal, prosecutors agreed to ask for no more than 30 years. Ledbetter was accused of sitting on the woman and slicing off her nipples with a pair of scissors during an argument last year. He apologised in court. The victim told the court how her injuries affected her physically and emotionally. Join thought-provoking conversations, follow other Independent readers and see their replies. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? Start your Independent Premium subscription today.